Sunday, 13 November 2011

Present Simple Tense

 Structure Examples We use the Present Simple Tense:
 To form the Present Simple Tense we use the verb's base form (go, work, speak, study). In 3rd person singular (he, she, it), the base form of the verb takes -s/es. (Auxiliary verbs "be," "do," "have", which can also be used as main verbs, are exceptions.)

 Affirmative form

you                 work

he/she/it     works /-s/

go - goes /-es/
watch - watches /-es/
play - plays /-s/
study - studies /-es/

! Remember:

to be
I/you/we/they are
he/she/it is

to do
I/you/we/they do
he/she/it does

to have
I/you/we/they have
he/she/it has

 Negative form

you      DO NOT /don't/
we           WORK

he/she/it    DOES NOT
              /doesn't / WORK

1. She doesn't often go to the cinema.
2. I don't get up early at the weekend.
3. They don't speak English very well.

 Interrogative form

DO       you       WORK?

DOES   he/she/it    WORK?

1. Do they speak foreign languages?
2. Do you want a banana?
3. Does your sister play the piano?

 Questions and short answers:

Do you like spaghetti?
Yes, I do.
No, I don't.

Does she know Bulgarian?
Yes, she does.
No, she doesn't.
1. Philip gets up at 6 o'clock every morning.
2. I go to school every day.
3. She sometimes goes out on Friday night.
4. I usually sleep late on Sunday morning.
5. Peter works for 8 hours every day.
6. We usually start work at 8 o'clock.
7. My children often watch TV in the afternoon.
8. He always forgets his keys.
when we talk about things that happen repeatedly or habitually

With Present Simple Tense we often use time expressions such as always, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, on Saturdays, rarely, never, every day, etc.
1. I work in a bank.
2. Kate speaks English very well.
3. Tom lives in London.
when we talk about permanent or long-lasting situations
1. People make choices because they can't have everything they want.
2. Nurses work in clinics and hospitals.
3. Football is a very popular sport in Bulgaria.
when we talk about people or things in general
1. The Earth is spherical.
2. My birthday is in May.
3. California is in the Unated States.
4. The sun rises in the east.
5. Water freezes at 0°C (32°F).
to indicate general truths, facts and scientific laws
1. We arrive in Rome at 6 p.m.
2. The train leaves in five minutes.
3. The course starts next Thursday.
when we talk about travel plans and timetables (mainly with verbs such as go, leave, arrive, start, come, return etc.)
1. She loves jazz music.
2. My aunt hates travelling by train.
3. I like ice cream. I don't like spinach.
4. I think she is a wonderful person.
5. Do you believe in God?
6. I have no money at the moment.
7. My brother has a new car.
8. That bicycle belongs to me.
with state (or stative) verbs such as like, dislike, love, think, seem, look, know, feel, understand, want, need, hate, remember, forget, prefer, believe, mean, taste, hear, see, have (when the meaning is "possess"), own, belong, etc. These verbs are not normally used in the Continuous Tense (but there are exceptions).
1. Pour all ingredients into a mixing bowl and mix until smooth.
2. Walk down the street to the corner and then turn right.
to give instructions/directions
 The Present Simple Tense is also used in :

sentences after "when", "after", "while", "till" / "until", "before", "as soon as" - When the rain stops, we'll go out.
I'll call you back as soon as I return home.

 zero conditional sentences (when the result of the condition is always true) - If you heat water to 100°C (212°F), it boils.

first conditional sentences (Often called the "real" conditional because it is used for real (or possible) situations. These situations take place if a certain condition is met.) - If you finish your homework I'll bring you to the zoo.
 Notes about formation of the 3rd person singular (he, she, it):

If the verb ends in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x or -o, add -es to the base form:
  kiss - kisses, finish - finishes, watch - watches, mix - mixes, go - goes

 If the verb ends in consonant + y change y to i and add -es:
  study - studies, copy - copies,  try - tries, carry - carries

Present Continuous Tense

1. How to form the Present Continuous Tense?

   The Present Continuous is made with the present form of the verb "to be"
       (I am, you are, he/she/it is, we are, you are, they are) + the '-ing' form of the main verb.
        The '-ing' form of the verb is called the Present Participle.

Present Continuous (Progressive) Tense
Affirmative (Positive) Form
Negative Form
Question Form
 I am  reading  I  am not  reading  Am  I  reading?
 You are  reading  You  are not  reading  Are  you  reading?
 He is  reading  He  is not  reading  Is  he  reading?
 She is  reading  She  is not  reading  Is  she  reading?
 It is  reading  It  is not  reading  Is  it  reading?
 We are  reading  We  are not  reading  Are  we  reading?
 You are  reading  You  are not  reading  Are  you  reading?
 They are  reading  They  are not  reading  Are  they  reading?

Contracted forms:

 I am = I'm                        you are = you're
 he/she/it is = he's/she's/it's      
 I am not  = I'm not           you are not  = you aren't
 he/she/it is not = he isn't/she isn't/it isn't       

 we are = we're                          they are = they're                              
 we are not  = we aren't             they are not = they aren't                     

Examples:  1. What are you doing?        3. He is reading a newspaper.    
                     2. I'm having a bath.            4. Are they working?      

     2. Using the Present Continuous Tense

   We most often use the Present Continuous when we talk about  
       something which is happening at the time of speaking (now, at the 

Examples: 1.Pamela is sleeping in the bedroom.

       2. The telephone is ringing!

       3. They are doing their homework.

       4. I'm waiting for my girlfriend in front of the cinema.

       Present Continuous is also used when we talk about something 
           which is happening at present, but not necessarily at the moment of 

Examples:  1. I'm reading an interesting book.

               2. Tom is looking for a new job.

                         3. We are studying English and Spanish.

 We can use the Present Continuous when we talk about temporary  
            actions taking place only for a period of time (today, this week, this 
            semester, this year):

Examples:  1. My husband is working hard today.

          2. They are spending this week in Paris.

          3. She is teaching English this semester.

          4. We are staying at the Bristol Hotel tonight.

           5. I'm living with my parents at the moment but soon I'll  
                         buy my own house.

 Present Continuous is also used to express current trends:

Examples:  1. Fuel prices are rising constantly because of strong   

                  2. On-line shopping is growing rapidly nowdays.

   We can use the Present Continuous when we talk about 
              repeated actions which are irritating to the speaker (always,  

Examples:  1. He is always complaining from his colleagues.

             2. My son is always getting into trouble in school.

 Sometimes we use the Present Continuous to describe
       a planned action in the near future:

Examples:  1. I'm leaving for Vienna tomorrow morning.

             2. We are having lunch at 12.30 o'clock.